ethylene glycol toxicity in dogs

Depending on the way polyethylene glycol is manufactured, PEG can contain contaminants like ethylene oxide and 1,4-dioxane. Ethylene glycol can also be found, in lower concentrations, in some windshield de-icing agents, hydraulic brake fluid, motor oils, solvents, paints, film processing solutions, wood stains, inks, printer cartridges, etc. Ethylene glycol exposure can be extremely dangerous, with significant morbidity and mor … It is an extremely dangerous toxin and the lethal dose for dogs is 2-3 ml/lb, and for cats it is 0.64 ml/lb. These 95% commercial antifreeze preparations are diluted ~50% with water when used in vehicle cooling systems. ANSWERS. Ethylene Glycol Poisoning in Dogs. How is 4-methylpyrazole used in the treatment of ethylene glycol toxicity? (In addition to being found in the car's engines to prevent freezing and overheating, it is used in hydraulic brake fluids.) Ethylene glycol is the ingredient found in most antifreeze products, usually at a concentration of 95-97%. Hewlett TP(1), Jacobsen D, Collins TD, McMartin KE. ... Once the dog has ingested this ethylene glycol it becomes toxic in their bodies. Antifreeze poisoning occurs when pets drink antifreeze containing ethylene glycol. (2) So, while a positive ethylene glycol test has a good chance of suggesting toxicity (although false positives can occur! When dogs and cats are exposed to antifreeze, it is essential that they immediately receive treatment. The treatment of choice for dogs is a drug called Fomepizole (or 4 - methylpyrazole or 4- MP). Follow the diagnostic tree for Evaluating Ataxia in Suspected Ethylene Glycol Toxicity Evaluating Ataxia in Suspected Ethylene Glycol Toxicity. Best Answer. This drug is administered intravenously multiple times over 24- 36 hours to prevent the development of kidney failure. Ethylene glycol toxicity: a retrospective pathological study in cats SHORT COMMUNICATION Before being metabolized, much like the excessive consumption of alcohol in human patients, EG causes irritation of the gastric mucosa, along with central nervous system depression. Fomepizole has been effectively used in dogs with ethylene glycol toxicity (Connally and others 1996) but it is currently unavailable as a licensed veterinary product in … The oral LD 50 of PG in dogs is ~9 mL/kg. The detailed report by Swor et al. There is a very small range of margin of toxicity in the case of ethylene glycol ingestion, in other words, a tiny dosage of this organic compound can result in fatal toxicity. Ethylene glycol (EG) toxicity results from its metabolism to glycolic acid and other toxic metabolites. Ethylene glycol toxicity in a dog. The purpose of the current study was to determine if the Catachem test kit (Catachem Inc., Oxford, Connecticut) could precisely and accurately detect the presence of EG added to serum and plasma from 6 dogs and 4 cats. 30 min after ingestion. Early symptoms include intoxication, vomiting and abdominal pain. above is a valuable contribution, owing particularly to an absence of any previous equine evidence of ethylene glycol toxicity reported in the scientific literature. Most intoxications are associated with ingestion of antifreeze, which is typically 95% EG. Many animals will voluntarily drink ethylene glycol if antifreeze is spilled or leaks onto garage floors or driveways. Toxicity to pets. However, there are a number of tests that together may indicate antifreeze poisoning if performed in a timely manner. Ethylene glycol poisoning is a potentially fatal condition that results from the ingestion of substances containing ethylene glycol, an organic compound commonly seen in antifreeze. (undiluted = 95% ethylene glycol, working solution in car radiator is 50%). It is a colorless, odorless, and sweet-tasting solution. Electrocution Ethylene glycol toxicity Ethylene glycol toxicity Frape, D. L. 2002-10-01 00:00:00 Ethylene glycol toxicity D. L. FRAPE The Priory, Churchyard, Mildenhall, Suffolk IP28 7EE, UK. Ethylene glycol (EG) toxicity Extended Version Prognosis: Good: Dogs treated within 5 hours, cats within 3 hours Guarded to poor: Very large doses presenting with seizures, nystagmus Prevention: Do not keep animals in the garage Lock antifreeze containers away from chewing dogs Ingestion of ethylene glycol (EG) is a frequently encountered toxicity in dogs and cats. Antifreeze products will mostly contain Ethylene glycol, Propylene glycol or Methanol as the active ingredient. Another issue that polyethylene glycol has is contamination. The liver quickly breaks down ethylene glycol into toxic products that can lead to kidney failure and death. In cats, ingestion of a diet containing 6%–12% PG can result in Heinz body formation and decreased RBC survival. Like ethylene glycol, propylene glycol may be used as an antifreeze and can be found in high concentrations in RV, marine, and “pet safe” antifreeze products. Ethylene glycol (anti-freeze) toxicity is a serious emergency in both veterinary and human medicine. Ethylene glycol (C2H6O2) is a toxic alcohol that is found in various household and industrial agents. Ethylene glycol (E/G) is the active anti-freeze principle in radiator water additives. Stage 1: This occurs within 30 minutes to 12 hours and looks similar to alcohol poisoning. There are two major treatments for ethylene glycol toxicity. Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource. Antifreeze consumed as concentrated solution. 5. Ethylene glycol tests often are not beneficial after 12 hours post-ingestion. polycyclic aromatic compounds, lead, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, and arsenic. In cats, ingestion of a diet containing 6%–12% PG can result in Heinz body formation and decreased RBC survival. Ethylene glycol poisoning is poisoning caused by drinking ethylene glycol. Ethylene glycol tastes sweet, which is why some animals are attracted to it. Ethylene glycol poisoning is common because antifreeze is widely used, it has a sweet taste and small lethal dose (only 3 to 4 teaspoons in dogs, 1 to 2 teaspoons in cats), and it … Even a small amount of antifreeze can be fatal to dogs and cats. Ethylene glycol is subsequently converted into more toxic metabolites, ), a negative test does not rule out ethylene glycol toxicity. Ethylene Glycol. In contrast to the other two types of antifreeze, it only takes a small amount of ethylene glycol to poison your dog, and even less to poison your cat – just two tablespoons for a ten-pound dog and one teaspoon for a cat. Most antifreezes contain ethylene glycol, a chemical compound that causes significant, often fatal, problems for both cats and dogs. 3. Antifreeze, which often contains ethylene glycol (EG), can be extremely dangerous to dogs and cats. Malicious poisoning. Pathogenesis Etiology. Ethylene glycol has a very narrow margin of safety – which means only a tiny amount can result in severe poisoning. I have treated ethylene glycol intoxication with both 4MP and vodka and hands down 4MP is the way to go from the management standpoint. 2 Ethylene glycol is most commonly found in automotive antifreeze and is also used as a precursor to industrial polymers. Antifreeze poisoning is a medical emergency, and early treatment is crucial. Further Reading Publications Refereed papers. Treatment for ethylene glycol poisoning includes the antidote fomepizole (also known as 4-MP) or ethanol. therapy. Without a doubt untreated ethylene glycol intoxication will kill a dog. The sweet taste and smell can be very enticing for pets, so always keep it securely stored! Although less toxic than EG, ingestion of propylene glycol (PG) may be associated with a toxic syndrome similar to the acute phase of EG toxicosis. Conclusion The minimum lethal dose of ethylene glycol is 4-6 ml/kg body weight in dogs.” According to Pet Poison Helpline, common signs of ethylene glycol poisoning occur in stages. All animals are susceptible to ethylene glycol (EG) toxicity, but it is most common in dogs and cats. Ethylene glycols peak at 1-4 hours post-ingestion and then begin to fall. Poisoning from drained radiator water. Later symptoms may include a decreased level of consciousness, headache, and seizures. Although less toxic than EG, ingestion of propylene glycol (PG) may be associated with a toxic syndrome similar to the acute phase of EG toxicosis. Antifreeze Toxicity in Dogs. Both dogs and cats may be attracted to ethylene glycol by its sweet taste. Ethylene glycol, a sweet-tasting, odorless liquid, is the active ingredient in antifreeze. Ethylene glycol and glycolate kinetics in rats and dogs. Ethylene Glycol – What Every Pet Owner Should Know. Q&A: Ethylene Glycol Toxicity Diagnosis and Treatment. Author information: (1)Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Louisiana State University Medical Center, Shreveport 71130-3932. Ethylene Glycol Poisoning in Dogs. Your vet will confirm ethylene glycol toxicity by taking a sample of your dog’s urine and looking for the presence of crystals under a microscope. The oral LD 50 of PG in dogs is ~9 mL/kg. How is ethanol used in the treatment of ethylene glycol toxicity? Last update: Oct 2, 2020 1 answer. The term “toxic alcohols” is a collective term that includes methanol, ethylene glycol, and isopropyl alcohol. The most used though is E Ethylene glycol which is mostly at a 95 to 97 percent concentration and which is an extremely dangerous toxin. Long term outcomes may include kidney failure and brain damage. Since it has a wider margin of safety as compared to its chemical cousin, ethylene glycol, it is commonly used to absorb extra water and maintain moisture in certain medicines, cosmetics, or dog and human food products. EG is found in antifreeze (95% solution), windshield de-icing agents, and some industrial solvents (detergents, photographic developing solutions, brake fluid, motor oil, paints, wood stains, and polishes). Identifying ethylene glycol poisoning without the owner seeing or suspecting their dog encountering antifreeze is challenging - the symptoms may apply to a wide variety of conditions, and the poison acts quickly. Ethylene glycol (EG) toxicity is commonly encountered in dogs and cats. Ethylene glycol (EG) is a clear, odorless compound that, because of its palatability, is occasionally ingested by both dogs and cats, with severe and potentially fatal consequences. Fomepizole is expensive but life-saving when administered to dogs within the first 8-12 hours of ingestion. Thus antifreeze toxicity in dogs should be taken very seriously and one should get medical intervention as quickly as possible. Why can't it be used in cats? Toxicity and death may occur after drinking even a small amount. Ethylene glycol is metabolized similarly to ETHANOL thus it is not surprising that animals show ataxia & CNs depression approx. ; Richards L, Ong H M, Davis M, Hodge P (2011) Ethylene glycol toxicity in a cat.Control & Therapy Series 263, 44-46.; Tart K M, Powell L L (2011) 4-methylpyrazole as a treatment in naturally occurring ethylene glycol intoxication in cats.J Vet Emerg Crit Care 21 (3), 268-272 PubMed. 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