DiI (1 μg/mL)-loaded NPs were incubated for 2, 4, and 24 hours. DCT release from NPs was assessed in vitro. Theranostic liposomes of TPGS coating for targeted co-delivery of docetaxel and quantum dots. In vitro cytotoxicity of blank PS-PDLLA NPs. We chose styrene, 4-fluorostyrene, 4-chlorostyrene and 4-bromostyrene for our structure-toxicity relationship study and found that 4-bromostyrene was the most toxic to CYP2E1 cells, followed by 4-chlorostyrene and 4-fluorostyrene. Tiunov LA, Zhuvov VG, et al. Data are expressed as means ± SD (n=5). Biocompatibility of PS-PDLLA can be estimated from the biomedical application of each polymer component as reported.27,31 The result of the cytotoxicity test supports the feasibility of PS-PDLLA NPs as a safe drug delivery vehicle. As incubation time increased, cellular uptake of NPs increased. DCT is almost insoluble in water (4.93 μg/mL). Interestingly, DiI-loaded NPs were entirely localized in the cytoplasm in the 24-hour incubated group. Styrene was slightly toxic to earthworms: LC 50 (14 days), 120 mg/kg, and NOEC, 44 mg/kg. 99 Get it as soon as Tue, Jan 5 The parameters manually optimized in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with positive electrospray ionization (ESI) were m/z values of precursor to product ion, fragmentor voltage, and collision energy, which were 830.3 to 549.1, 168 V, and 17 eV for DCT and 876.2 to 591.0, 165 V, and 24 eV for PTX, respectively. EPA-454/R-93-011 EPA Contract No. However, both the LC phase and the orientation of the hierarchical structure under mechanical shear showed strong dependence on the LC content. Oberc, E.L. Thomasd,* aTyco Electronics, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA b3M Corporation, Austin, TX 78726, USA cDepartment of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850, USA dProgram in Polymer Science and â¦ Furthermore, improved inhibition of cancer cell growth could lead to enhanced in vivo anti-tumor efficacy, based on the stability of the developed NPs in serum (Figure 3). Lefaux R . 1942]. Together with the cytotoxicity results (Figure 5), this demonstrates the biocompatibility of the developed NPs and supports their use as an injection formulation for anticancer drug delivery. A sustained drug release pattern can improve systemic exposure of the drug after intravenous injection. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) was 100 ng/mL and the inter- and intra-day variances of the HPLC method were within the acceptable range. 1College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 2Division of Health Sciences, Dongseo University, Busan, Republic of Korea, 3College of Pharmacy, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Republic of Korea. Mohammad AK, Amayreh LK, Mazzara JM, Reineke JJ. 3pcs ABS Plastic Styrene Plasticard Roof Tiles Sheet 215mm x 300mm or 8.46 x 11.81inch White for Model Train Layout ABS38-3-NUS $12.99 $ 12 . Cellular uptake and distribution of the constructed NPs containing a hydrophobic fluorescent dye was monitored by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) for 24 hours. It was expected that the ester linkage in the PDLLA backbone could be degraded via esterase-catalyzed hydrolysis in biological fluids.24 With the degradation of the PDLLA segment, NPs based on PS-PDLLA copolymer could be disassembled to release incorporated hydrophobic drug. Basis for revised IDLH: The revised IDLH for styrene is 700 ppm based on acute inhalation toxicity data in humans [AIHA 1959; Stewart et al. Yoon G, Park JW, Yoon IS. Various approaches have been used for DCT delivery for prostate cancer therapy.32,33 DCT concentration (1–100 nM) in this study was set up considering its reported IC50 values in PC-3 cells.34–36 Cell viability was measured using an MTS-based assay after 48 and 72 hours of incubation of Taxotere and PS-PDLLA/DCT NPs. PC-3 cell viability (%) was assessed after 24, 48, and 72 hours of incubation at 0–1,000 μg/mL of the PS-PDLLA copolymer (Figure 5). However, toxicity and other factors have hindered their clinical application, despite their considerable in vivo performance in animal models. Polymer Plastics Company, LC 550 Mallory Way Carson City, Nevada 89701 (775) 283-4400 email@example.com . The analytical data were processed using the MassHunter Workstation Software Quantitative Analysis (vB.05.00; Agilent Technologies). Walkey CD, Olsen JB, Guo H, Emili A, Chan WC. In fact, styrene is the most affordable non-glass facing option for framingâproviding quality protection from scratches and dust damage. Moscow, Russia: Centre of International Projects, GKNT, p. 106. Though serum biochemical analysis was performed in mice, pharmacokinetic study was done in rats considering their special characteristics, such as enough blood volume for multiple sampling compared to mice. Styrene monomer. We developed NPs based on a PS-PDLLA copolymer for delivery of DCT via intravenous injection. Mean diameter of the developed NPs in 50% FBS. The obtained DCT-loaded PS-PDLLA NPs were freeze-dried and stored at −70°C (DF8517; Ilshin Laboratory Co., Ltd., Seoul, Korea) for further experiments. Air: Styrene is quickly broken down in the air, usually within 1-2 days. 4. Jae-Young Lee, Jung Sun Kim, [...], and Dae-Duk Kim. Serum biochemistry parameters after intravenous injection of drug-unloaded NPs into the mouse. Lee JS, Feijen J. Biodegradable polymersomes as carriers and release systems for paclitaxel using Oregon Green. AUC, t1/2, and MRT values of the PS-PDLLA/DCT group were 2.31-, 2.33-, and 4.16-fold higher than those of the Taxotere group, respectively (P<0.05). Cellular uptake of PS-PDLLA NPs in PC-3 cells. Styrene (/ËstÊÉªriËn/) is an organic compound with the chemical formula C 6 H 5 CH=CH 2. Moreover, the mean diameter and size distribution of the developed NPs containing DCT were consistently maintained for 24 hours in 50% (volume per volume) FBS (Figure 3). At all DCT concentration (1, 10 and 100 nM) and incubation time (48 and 72 hours) groups, the cell viability (%) of the PS-PDLLA/DCT NP-treated group was lower than that of the Taxotere group (P<0.05). Lo KH, Chen MC, Ho RM, Sung HW. The femoral artery and vein were cannulated with Intramedic™ Polyethylene Tubing (PE-50; Becton, Dickinson & Co., Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA) under anesthesia with Zoletil® (Virbac S. A., Carros, France) at a dose of 50 mg/kg via intramuscular injection. Notes: Data are presented as means ± SD (n=3); Scale bar =10 μm. Aliquots (50 μL) of the plasma samples were spiked with PTX as an internal standard in acetonitrile (10 μL volume, 1 μg/mL concentration), and mixed with acetonitrile (90 μL) for deproteinization. Notes: NPs, at a dose of 25 mg/kg, were injected intravenously into the mouse every day for 1 week. A 200 μL aliquot of the medium was collected at fixed times (3, 6, 9, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, 192, 216, and 240 hours), and an equivalent volume of fresh media was replenished at each time point. Park J, Wrzesinski SH, Stern E, et al. Self-assembly nanomicelles based on cationic mPEG-PLA-b-Polyarginine(R15) triblock copolymer for siRNA delivery. DCT-loaded PS-PDLLA NPs dispersion (150 μL) was loaded into a mini GeBAflex-tube with a 12–14 kDa molecular weight cut-off (Gene Bio-Application Ltd., Kfar HaNagid, Israel). Drug release from NPs was evaluated in vitro. An MTS-based assay was performed to assess cell viability (%). Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI), 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-1-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) solution, and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) solution were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich Co. (St Louis, MO, USA). Cutting Score polystyrene sheets with a sharp razor knife on one side and break the sheet on the scored line. Notes: (A) Change in the particle size (nm) of PS-PDLLA/DCT NPs in serum was monitored for 24 hours; (B) size distribution of developed NPs in serum at 0 and 24 hours. The column eluent was monitored using an Agilent LS-MS/MS system equipped with an Agilent Technologies 1260 Infinity HPLC system and Agilent Technologies 6430 Triple Quad LC/MS system. Lung-specific delivery of paclitaxel by chitosan-modified PLGA nanoparticles via transient formation of microaggregates. There was no indication of a concern for chronic toxicity based on these studies. Current OSHA PEL: 100 ppm TWA, 200 ppm CEILING, 600 ppm 5-minute MAXIMUM PEAK IN ANY 3 HOURS, 1989 OSHA PEL: 50 ppm (215 mg/m3) TWA, 100 ppm (425 mg/m3) STEL. Degradable cationic shell cross-linked knedel-like nanoparticles: synthesis, degradation, nucleic acid binding, and in vitro evaluation. Industrial hygiene and toxicology. Styrene, liquid hydrocarbon that is important chiefly for its marked tendency to undergo polymerization (a process in which individual molecules are linked to produce extremely large, multiple-unit molecules). The dissolution medium (10 mL), PBS (pH 7.4) containing 0.5% (w/v) Tween 80, was agitated at 50 rpm using a shaking bath at 37°C. Treatment of androgen-independent prostate cancer using antimicrotubule agents docetaxel and estramustine in combination: an experimental study. Owens DE, 3rd, Peppas NA. This derivative of benzene is a colorless oily liquid, although aged samples can appear yellowish. Degradation of ester linkages in the PDLLA segment of the copolymer could be one of the mechanisms of drug release from NPs in biological fluids.27 It is assumed that the existence of esterases in biological fluids can facilitate disruption of NPs, thereby eliminating the copolymers from the body, and releasing the drug. Cells were treated with the MTS-based CellTiter 96® AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay Reagent and incubated at 37°C for 4 hours. Abbreviations: DCT, docetaxel; NP, nanoparticle; PS-PDLLA, poly(styrene)-b-poly(DL-lactide); SD, standard deviation. Toxicometric parameters of industrial toxic chemicals under single exposure. Understanding and controlling the morphology of styreneâisoprene side-group liquid crystalline diblock copolymers C.O. . In vivo toxicity of blank PS-PDLLA NPs was assessed in a mouse model, based principally on serum biochemical analysis. was collected at di ... (Fig. We fabricated NPs with a narrow size distribution, negative zeta potential value, spherical shape, and high drug EE. Notes: Taxotere® (Sanofi S.A., Paris, France) and PS-PDLLA/DCT NPs at 1 nM, 10 nM, and 100 nM DCT were incubated for (A) 48 and (B) 72 hours. The mixture was vortexed for 10 minutes and centrifuged at 13,200 rpm for 5 minutes. Male BALB/c mice (10 weeks old; Charles River Laboratories, Wilmington, MA, USA) were used for serum biochemistry analysis of PS-PDLLA NPs. Chena, G. Maob, C.K. Notes: Taxotere® (Sanofi S.A., Paris, France) or PS-PDLLA/DCT (10:1) NPs were intravenously administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg. Styrene-divinylbenzene Copolymer is used in inorganic trace analysis for solid phase extraction preconcentration. Pore-filling nanoporous templates from degradable block copolymers for nanoscale drug delivery. In fact, the thermogram obtained after annealing the blend at 200 °C does not show any clear transition indicating the onset of the merging of the two T g 's (curve b). Notes: (A) Size distribution in DW and (B) FE-SEM images of PS-PDLLA/DCT at 5:1 and 10:1 polymer to drug weight ratios are shown. Mu CF, Balakrishnan P, Cui FD, et al. Acute (short-term) exposure to styrene in humans results in mucous membrane and â¦ The LC. Effects of particle size and surface modification on cellular uptake and biodistribution of polymeric nanoparticles for drug delivery. The content of DiI in freeze-dried NPs was determined using an EMax Precision Microplate Reader at 560 nm by disrupting the NPs with DMSO. In vivo pharmacokinetic parameters of DCT in rats after intravenous injection at a dose of 1 mg/kg. The absorbance was measured at 490 nm with an EMax Precision Microplate Reader. Nano-sized vehicles based on PS have been widely investigated as a drug delivery system.8,9 Amorphous PDLLA, based on the polymerization of a racemic mixture of L- and D-lactides, has been used for drug delivery in itself or in its conjugate form.10 Taking the biomedical functionalities of each component (PS or PDLLA) into account, it seems that PS-PDLLA copolymer has merit to be used for the development of a drug delivery system. The optimized gas temperature, gas flow, nebulizer pressure, and capillary voltage were 350°C, 10 L per minute, 30 psi, and 6,000 V, respectively. Cell viability (%) was calculated from these absorbance values. Blank NPs did not induce any serious cytotoxicity in PC-3 cells. In vivo pharmacokinetic study of DCT in rats. The UCST should lie between 150 and 250 °C. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of DCT was 1 ng/mL, and precision and accuracy were within the acceptable range. Thus, drug solubilization techniques were used to prepare the commercial formulation Taxotere® (Sanofi S.A., Paris, France), which is marketed worldwide as an injectable formulation of DCT.13 However, although solubility of DCT has been improved for its clinical application, toxicity of the blank formulation and inaccurate tumor targeting still remain to be overcome. Arvizo RR, Saha S, Wang E, Robertson JD, Bhattacharya R, Mukherjee P. Inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis by a self-therapeutic nanoparticle. Moreover, it is expected that prolonged drug circulation could improve in vivo anti-tumor efficacy via passive tumor targeting and elevated systemic exposure. 2 b). CDC is not responsible for Section 508 compliance (accessibility) on other federal or private website. DCT, a second generation of taxoid, has anti-mitotic chemotherapeutic properties and has been used in breast, prostate, ovarian, and lung cancers. Styrene (CâHâ CH=CHâ) is a colorless liquid that evaporates easily and has a sweet smell. The effects of mixed MPEG-PLA/Pluronic copolymer micelles on the bioavailability and multidrug resistance of docetaxel. Other animal data: RD50 (mouse), 980 ppm [Alarie 1981]. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) of DCT in PS-PDLLA NPs was measured by disrupting the NPs with DMSO (50× dilution). Patty FA, ed. The safety and efficiency of PS-PDLLA NPs for injectable chemotherapy formulation were thoroughly investigated by evaluating the physicochemical properties of NPs as well as the drug release, cellular distribution, and in vitro anti-tumor efficacy, together with the serum biochemistry in mice and pharmacokinetic properties after intravenous injection in rats. The Linked Data Service provides access to commonly found standards and vocabularies promulgated by the Library of Congress. 2. Osujia, J.T. Abstract Poly(styrene)-b-poly(DL-lactide) (PS-PDLLA) copolymer-based nanoparticles (NPs) of a narrow size distribution, negative zeta potential, and spherical shape were fabricated for â¦ Thin sheets and strips can be cut through with a very sharp knife or single edge razor blade. Environ Health Perspect 42:9-13. All serum biochemical parameters, such as total cholesterol (TCHO), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total protein (TP), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), total bilirubin (TBIL), and inorganic phosphorus (IP), were obtained by using a Fuji Dri-Chem 3500s (Fujifilm Holdings Corp., Tokyo, Japan). Notes: PC-3 cell viability (%) after 24, 48, and 72 hours was measured using an MTS-based assay. Generating an ePub file may take a long time, please be patient. The synthesis of PS-PDLLA copolymer and the development of a nanoporous template have already been reported.11,12 In this study, the feasibility of PS-PDLLA for NP fabrication and its application to anticancer drug delivery are discussed for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. Izmerov NF, Sanotsky IV, Sidorov KK . Chemical structure and characterization of the PS-PDLLA copolymer. PC-3 cells were seeded in four-chamber culture slides (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA, USA) at a density of 1.0×105 cells/well and incubated for 24 hours at 37°C. Hu Q, Gao X, Gu G, et al. Other human data: Volunteers exposed to 376 ppm for up to 7 hours experienced unpleasant subjective symptoms and objective signs of neurologic impairment [Stewart et al. Lee SY, Kim S, Tyler JY, Park K, Cheng JX. In the current investigation, a poly(styrene)-b-poly(DL-lactide) (PS-PDLLA) copolymer (Figure 1A) was used for the preparation of nanoparticles (NPs) for docetaxel (DCT) delivery. Blank NPs, at a dose of 25 mg/kg, were intravenously injected into mice daily for 1 week, after which several blood biochemistry parameters were obtained as presented in Table 2. Numerous NPs based on each copolymer component (PS or PDLLA) were fabricated and their characteristics, including toxicity, were investigated.27,31 It was reported that the cytotoxicity of PS NPs was influenced by the functional group attached on the surface of the NPs, the particle size, and the presence of enzymes or serum.37 PDLLA has been used as a biocompatible polymer, alone or in a conjugated form, for drug delivery and tissue engineering.38,39 Nonetheless, the in vivo toxicity of PS-PDLLA NPs has not been previously investigated. Abbreviations: DCT, docetaxel; MTS, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium; NP, nanoparticle; PS-PDLLA, poly(styrene)-b-poly(DL-lactide); SD, standard deviation. Poly(styrene)-b-poly(DL-lactide) (PS-PDLLA) copolymer-based nanoparticles (NPs) of a narrow size distribution, negative zeta potential, and spherical shape were fabricated for the delivery of docetaxel (DCT). Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs): recent advances in drug delivery. Keen I, Yu A, Cheng HH, et al. Practical toxicology of plastics. This process was used because the stampers lasted longer (More profits), as they didnt go through the tough heating process that vinyl did. Polymerization becomes self â¦ Herein, we report on the PS-PDLLA copolymer-based NPs for the controlled delivery of water-insoluble anticancer drugs, using DCT as a model. After removing the cell culture media, Taxotere and PS-PDLLA/DCT NPs were added (1, 10, and 100 nM DCT) and incubated for 48 and 72 hours at 37°C in a 5% CO2 incubator with 95% relative humidity. Cellular uptake efficiency of the developed NPs can improve cancer therapy after the arrival of NPs in the tumor region via passive tumor targeting, based on the EPR effect. The PS-PDLLA NPs are expected to be a biocompatible and efficient nano-delivery system for anticancer drugs. Muthu MS, Feng SS. Ting HJ, Hsu J, Bao BY, Lee YF. J Ind Hyg Toxicol 24(10):295-296. As reported in other studies regarding intravenous DCT delivery, in vivo clearance of DCT from developed NPs was decreased compared to Taxotere in this investigation.40,42 Prolonged circulation time of drug may contribute to the decreased dosing frequency and improved patient compliance. The NPs suspensions were eliminated by washing with PBS (pH 7.4) three times. Opsonization, biodistribution, and pharmacokinetics of polymeric nanoparticles. Proteins can bind to the surface of polymeric NPs after intravenous injection of NPs, forming a protein corona.28 Diverse proteins in biological fluids can participate in the formation of protein corona, acting as opsonins related to cellular uptake by a mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS).29 Thus, the interaction between proteins and a polymeric NP surface can modulate the pharmacokinetic properties of the drug and the fate of NPs.30 Stability testing in serum (Figure 3) indicated that DCT-loaded NPs could reach the tumor region without aggregation or precipitation in the blood stream and rapid clearance by the reticuloendothelial system. The cellular uptake and distribution of NPs were observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The absorbance was measured at 490 nm using an EMax Precision Microplate Reader (Molecular Devices, Sunnyvale, CA, USA). Notes: Data are presented as means ± SD (n≥3). In vitro DCT release profiles from PS-PDLLA NPs. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cementing Unlike wood or other materials, polystyrene parts are joined by bonding with a â¦ Each point indicates the mean ± SD (n≥3). Wang W, Zhang H, Geng W, et al. Characterization of DCT-loaded PS-PDLLA NPs. 2nd rev. NPs were mounted on stubs and coated with Pt under vacuum. Glioma therapy using tumor homing and penetrating peptide-functionalized PEG-PLA nanoparticles loaded with paclitaxel. Therefore, the observed cytotoxicity in Figure 7 seems to be based on the performance of DCT-incorporated PS-PDLLA NPs. Although the in vitro and in vivo toxicity of many organic and inorganic materials have been evaluated, a limited number of substances have been selected for clinical application so far. DiI (1 μg/mL)-loaded PS-PDLLA NPs were incubated for 2, 4, and 24 hours. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Blood samples (0.8 mL) were then collected by cardiac puncture and aliquots of plasma were obtained by centrifuging at 3,000 rpm for 20 minutes. The LCP and PAA blocks in LCP-b-PAA have LC-anchoring and receptor roles, respectively, in LC-based biosensors. The released amounts of DCT were determined by the HPLC-ultraviolet (UV) method, as described in the previous section. Because of its combination of versatility, easy processing, and good value, styrene is one of the largest thermoplastics. 3. As shown in Table 1 and Figure 2, we prepared DCT-loaded NPs with a 220–240 nm mean diameter, narrow size distribution, negative zeta potential value, and >80% drug EE. The retention times of DCT and PTX were 4.8 and 4.9 minutes, respectively. PC-3 cells were seeded on 96-well plates at a density of 1.0×104/well and incubated overnight. Stewart RD, Dodd HC, Baretta ED, Schaffer AW . Abbreviations: DCT, docetaxel; DW, distilled water; FE-SEM, field emission-scanning electron microscope; NP, nanoparticle; PS-PDLLA, poly(styrene)-b-poly(DL-lactide); SEI, secondary electron imaging; WD, working distance. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and DDW with 0.1% (v/v) formic acid (70:30, v/v) and the flow rate was 0.2 mL per minute. Alarie Y . Ren J, Zhao P, Ren T, Gu S, Pan K. Poly(D,L-lactide)/nano-hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering and biocompatibility evaluation. In: Hygienic guide series. R2. : synthesis, degradation, nucleic acid binding, and 24 hours efficient styrene b lc system anticancer! Dodd HC, Irish DD, Adams EM, Rowe styrene b lc [ 1942.! Control and Prevention ( CDC ) can not attest to the accuracy of model... Seoul National University Table 3 ) Molecular weight by DPE seeded emulsion polymerization and its application proton... Tang WL, MacCallum NW, Li SD adsorption and macrophage uptake and a sustained drug and. 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